Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Starship's Gastroenterology/ Hepatology service provides assessment, diagnosis, treatment and long term follow-up for children and adolescents with a wide range of gastrointestinal and liver conditions. The service is part of the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit, providing a nationally based service for children requiring transplant.

Our team currently is made up of four consultant gastroenterologists & hepatologists, two paediatric liver & gastroenterology nurse specialists as well as many other staff including junior doctors, dietitians, pharmacists, psychologists, social workers, cultural support workers and play specialists.

What is Gastroenterology?

Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the stomach, small and large bowel and the pancreas.
Such disorders include:

  • Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis)
  • Intestinal failure & intravenous nutrition (IVN) dependence (sometimes called TPN dependence)
  • Coeliac disease
  • Complicated gastro-oesophageal reflux
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Children with a risk of familial bowel cancer

What is Hepatology (liver disease)?
Hepatology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with diseases of the liver.
Such disorders include:

  • Liver transplantation
  • Biliary atresia
  • Autoimmune hepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis
  • Intestinal failure associated liver disease
  • Viral hepatitis (B and C)
  • Fatty liver disease & NASH
  • Alagille syndrome
  • Metabolic liver disease


  • Dr Stephen Mouat Paediatric Gastroenterologist & Hepatologist
  • Dr Simon Chin Paediatric Gastroenterologist & Hepatologist
  • Dr Helen Evans Head of Department & Consultant Paediatric Hepatologist & Gastroenterologist
  • Dr Jonathan Bishop Paediatric Gastroenterologist & Hepatologist
  • Dr Amin Roberts Paediatric Gastroenterologist & Hepatologist

Referral Expectations

Many common childhood gastrointestinal problems such as gastro-oesophageal reflux, abdominal pain and constipation can be managed well by general paediatricians and GPs without needing input by the Paediatric Gastroenterology & Hepatology Service. Our service manages serious, long-term gastroenterology and hepatology conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, intestinal failure.

We have updated our referral criteria in 2014 for GPs and paediatricians.


Urgent assessment
If your child has an urgent problem they will be assessed in the Children's Emergency Department at Starship Hospital. Based on your child’s condition they may be admitted to Starship Hospital for ongoing care or follow-up arranged at the outpatient clinics.

Patients from outside of Auckland will be assessed by their local paediatrician and discussion made with the on call paediatric gastroenterologist & hepatologist at Starship. Appropriate arrangements for transfer to Starship can then be made if needed.

Other assessment
If your child has a less urgent problem, a letter of referral is sent to our department. A senior doctor will look at the letter and a decision is made based on the information provided in the letter. We are not able to see all children referred to us and many conditions can be looked after by general paediatricians. Possible outcomes from referral include:

  • Outpatient clinic appointment:

An appointment will be offered. For most referrals this will be within a month. All children will be seen within 4 months. If your child is getting worse while waiting, please see your General Practitioner or paediatrician again.

  • More investigations are needed:

Sometimes, when we read the referral letter, we feel it would be useful for your child to have more tests, either before we see them, or to decide if we need to see your child. These tests may be blood, urine or faecal (stool) tests or X-rays. In this case, we will write to your referring doctor to arrange these and ask that they re-refer your child when the tests have been done.

  • Endoscopy:

For some conditions your child may be booked directly to endoscopy without being seen in clinic first. The reason for this is to decrease delay prior to treatment. Both you and the referring doctor will be sent a letter explaining this. If you have any concerns or questions please contact the team via our secretary (extension 22292 at Starship Hospital) and we will see you in clinic to discuss things more fully. Endoscopy waiting times are currently 8-12 weeks.

  • Referral to another service:

Straightforward cases may be referred back to your referring doctor (as explained above) with written advice or we may suggest a more suitable service to see your child.

  • Referral return:

Sometimes your child may already be receiving appropriate management from their general practitioner or general paediatrician and we will not need to see them. In this case, an appointment is not made and we write back to the referrer. Should symptoms change, a re-referral to our service can be made.



Common Conditions / Procedures / Treatments

Gastroscopy/Upper Endoscopy

This is a camera test which allows the doctor to see inside the oesophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). 
What to expect
The gastroscope is a plastic-coated tube about as thick as a ballpoint pen and is flexible.  It is passed down through your child's mouth. It has a tiny camera attached. Your child will have a general anaesthetic (be completely asleep). If the doctor sees any abnormalities they can take a biopsy (a small piece of tissue) to send to the laboratory for testing. This is not a painful procedure. It will be performed as a day case procedure so your child goes home the same day. It takes around 20 minutes but your child will be away from you for around 2 hours to allow them to recover from the anaesthetic. 
Before the procedure
You will be sent instructions as your child will need to starve for several hours before the endoscopy.

After the procedure
Your child will stay in the Day Stay Unit until they are ready to go home.  If biopsies are taken these will be sent for analysis and results are available within 2-3 weeks.  A report and copies of these are sent to the doctor who referred your child. We do not telephone results.


This is a procedure which allows the doctor to see inside your child's large bowel and examine the surfaces directly and take biopsies (samples of tissue) if needed.  Treatment of conditions can also be undertaken.
What to expect
The colonoscope is a flexible plastic-coated tube a little thicker than a ballpoint pen which has a tiny camera attached that sends images to a viewing screen. Your child will be given a general anaesthetic then a tube is passed into the rectum (bottom) and gently moved along the large bowel.  The procedure takes from 10 minutes to 1 hour and oxygen levels and heart rhythm are monitored throughout.
The procedure is performed in a day stay operating theatre. 
Before the procedure
Your child will need to follow a special diet and take some laxatives (medicine to make them go to the toilet) over the days leading up to the test.
Risks of a colonoscopy are rare but include:     
  • bleeding if a biopsy is performed          
  • perforation (tearing) of the bowel wall.

Liver Biopsy

The best way to establish what type of liver disease is present and the extent of the disease, is a biopsy. It is usually performed by inserting a needle into the liver through the skin and taking a small sample of liver tissue. Examination of the sample under the microscope can demonstrate what damage or what type of disease is present. Before the doctor does this procedure, they will check whether or not your child is at increased risk of bleeding by doing blood tests. Following the procedure, children are usually admitted for overnight observation.

Barium Meal

This is an x-ray test of the small intestine. Your child will have to drink some special milk (barium). If they are unable to drink the milk, a soft flexible tube (naso-gastric tube) is placed into their nose and then down into their stomach. The special milk is able to be seen on x-ray. X-rays are then taken of the intestine, the milk showing the outline of the intestine.

This test is done in the x-ray (radiology) department at Starship Hospital.

It is done to see if there are any problems with the small intestine (like Crohn’s disease or vomiting)

MR Abdomen (magnetic resonance scan)

This is a test where the abdomen is examined using an MR scanner. Children lie on a special table which moves in and out of a donut shaped scanner. Pictures of their small intestine and liver can be taken. There are no x-rays with this scan. The scan may take up to 30 minutes and is relatively noisy but is completely painless. Younger children may require a general anaesthetic to help them keep still during the scan.

pH/Impedance Study

A pH/Impedance study is an investigation designed to see if your child has reflux [the contents of the stomach coming back out the stomach into the oesophagus (food pipe)]. A pH/Impedance probe is a long, fine, flexible tube which is inserted through the nose and  down the back of the throat. One end of the probe is taped to the side of the face and the other end sits at the bottom of the oesophagus. The probe is usually placed under sedation or general anaesthetic.

A small box is attached to the tube. This records the results of the test which usually last 24 hours.

A diary is kept by the parents of any food, sleep or symptoms that occur while the test is being carried out.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP)

A flexible tube with a tiny video camera attached (endoscope) is inserted through the mouth into the stomach and small intestine while your child is under anaesthesia sedation.  This is a rare examination in children.  A smaller tube is then moved through the first tube into the bile duct (the tube that connects your child's gallbladder to the intestines) through which dye is injected and an x-ray is taken to visualise the ducts. This procedure also enables the removal of stones from the ducts without the need for surgery.

Oesophageal Manometry

This is a test to see how effective the oesophagus (swallowing tube) is at moving food and liquid from the mouth to the stomach. It is particularly useful in children who are getting food "stuck" in the oesophagus after swallowing.

The test is usually done under sedation (medicine is given to make the child relaxed but not completely out to sleep). A  slender, flexible tube is placed into the nose and down to the stomach. Children then get to sip a small amount of liquid or food. The Manometer measures how the oesophagus muscles are able to push food down.

It takes 10-20 minutes to complete the test, although the child will need to stay longer to allow the sedation to wear off before going home.

Intestinal Failure

Children who have intestinal failure are unable to take food normally either because their bowel is not working properly or because they do not have enough bowel because they have had some removed (short bowel syndrome). Some of these children can take some food via the normal route but are unable to absorb enough food and nutrients to allow them to grow and thrive. When this happens artificial nutrition may be given into a vein. We call this intravenous nutrition or IVN. Some other places call it total parenteral nutrition (TPN or PN). Children with intestinal failure are seen at Starship for assessment and to create a treatment plan to maximise the rehabilitation of the remaining bowel, allowing them to eventually feed normally. Some children are born with problems in the way their intestine absorbs food or in the way the food is moved along the intestine. These children may require IVN for their whole life and will therefore be managed mainly by the Paediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology Service at Starship Hospital.

Biliary Atresia

Biliary atresia is a disease that affects children in the first weeks of life. The tubes which connect the liver to the intestine become damaged and blocked. Babies with biliary atresia will have jaundice (yellow eyes and skin) and pale stool (poo). Babies usually look otherwise well. If your baby is jaundiced and has pale stool they require an urgent blood test. If the blood tests suggest they may have biliary atresia they will be admitted to hospital urgently for further testing and possible surgery.

Autoimmune Hepatitis and Sclerosing Cholangitis

Autoimmune hepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis are a group of uncommon liver conditions where the body’s own immune system begins to attack the liver and the bile ducts which drain bile into the intestine. Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis or sclerosing cholangitis include jaundice (yellow eyes or skin), itchy skin and tiredness. Diagnosis can be suspected based on blood test results but requires a liver biopsy for confirmation and usually a specialised Xray called an MRCP or MR cholangiogram.

Hepatitis B and C

Hepatitis B and C are viruses that cause long-term damage to the liver. Most children with hepatitis B & C are very well and don't have any particular signs or symptoms of the virus. Usually the virus is transmitted from mother to baby. It is important for us to see and monitor your child regularly to make sure their liver is staying healthy and that no complications are developing. Children usually have blood tests and a scan every year. Often treatment for the virus can occur when your child is older. For more information about Hepatitis B and C see

Liver Transplant

The Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Starship Children’s Hospital is part of the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit. The service provides liver transplant assessment, surgery and long-term follow-up for all children in New Zealand requiring a liver transplant.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of conditions that cause long-term inflammation of the intestines (bowel). The condition can affect only the large bowel (ulcerative colitis) or any part of the entire digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus (Crohn's disease).
Symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease may include: frequent bowel motions that may contain blood or mucous, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. The inflammation can also affect other parts of the body, such as the eyes or joints, and may cause a form of arthritis.
Inflammatory bowel disease is treated with medications and sometimes with a change in diet. In some cases, surgery may be needed.

Coeliac Disease

Coeliac disease is a disease where there is a permanent intestinal intolerance of gluten. Gluten is part of wheat and other cereals and is found in a lot of foods including bread and pasta. It is common, occurring in 1 in 100 people. Symptoms include diarrhoea (loose poo), poor growth or stomach bloating. A proportion of people with coeliac disease have mild or no symptoms. This diagnosis is a common reason for referral.  Although there is a useful blood test which will suggest the diagnosis, an intestinal biopsy is essential to confirm the diagnosis and needs to be performed before any dietary change is commenced.  This is performed by gastroscopy and is a day stay procedure.  It is important that endoscopy is done as the blood test is not good enough to start treatment on a disease that is life long. The treatment is to stop eating all foods with gluten in them, like bread and pasta. Sometimes the blood test may be only mildly abnormal and in this case, a repeat test may be necessary before referral to our service for endoscopy. Most children who have confirmed coeliac disease can be followed up by their general paediatrician or general practitioner once they have adjusted to the new diet.

Gastrointestinal Bleeding

The presence of blood in vomit or in the stool is a common reason for children to be referred for endoscopy. The blood may be red or sometimes will become tarry black. The cause will depend on the age of the child and may include oesophageal varices, peptic ulcer, gastro-oesophageal reflux, Helicobacter pylori infection, allergic colitis, colonic polyps or inflammatory bowel disease. The best method of finding the cause is a gastroscopy or colonoscopy.

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