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This site does not accept referrals or provide clinical advice in response to questions. If you are a New Zealand health professional seeking clinical advice, please use your local clinical pathway. If you are a New Zealand child patient, parent or caregiver seeking clinical advice, please contact your usual doctor. You can read the full site disclaimer here.

Executive summary

Microcephaly is an important neurologic sign that is estimated to affect about 3 per 10,000 births. Microcephaly may indicate a significant underlying congenital, genetic, or metabolic condition; or acquired disease such as congenital infections. Many of these conditions have long-term medical and neuro-developmental sequelae for the affected child, with a significant burden of care. Early investigation is essential for timely diagnosis, treatment and the development of a long-term management plan. See the full microcephaly diagnostic guideline below.

Below are algorithms for the evaluation of congenital (primary) microcephaly and acquired (secondary) microcephaly - click on the relevant headings to view the pdf algorithm.

Evaluation of Congenital (Primary) Microcephaly

Evaluation of Acquired (Secondary) Microcephaly

Microcephaly diagnostic guideline

The full microcephaly diagnostic guideline can be accessed by clicking on the image below:

Microcephaly guideline

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